Friday, April 18, 2014

Ecklund's "Origins of Western Law from Athens to the Code Napoleon"

Talbot Publishing has announced the publication of The Origins of Western Law from Athens to the Code Napoleon by John E. Ecklund (1916-2000).  It was edited by his wife, Constance Cryer Ecklund.

John E. Ecklund
The press describes Ecklund as "a lifelong student of legal history.”  He graduated from Yale Law School cum laude in 1941, after serving as case editor of the Yale Law Journal.  He joined the legal division of the Board of Economic Warfare, where Willard Hurst wrote minimum labor standards into procurement contracts for overseas materiel at the start of World War II.  He later served in a law firm and as general counsel and treasurer of Yale University.

According to the press,
The Origins of Western Law from Athens to the Code Napoleon charts the horizon of Western legal origins. Eternal Platonic truths versus the Sophists of individual preferences, medieval Realists against Nominalists, natural lawyers of the 17th and later centuries, Montesquieu and other Enlightenment thinkers fighting through principles and personhood-these and many more figures and ideas come alive in this comprehensive survey of the antecedents of our modern legal system.
In the preface, Ecklund explains:
This book can be described as non-technical history of legal science.  It centers on the recounting of a major and venerable debate--one which grew from the complex intricacies of social participation and philosophical argument in ancient Athens, became the stuff of legend in an elegant French code, and will continue beyond today into laws which must begin to reach into worlds still unknown to us. This theme is the great conflict between people who see law as tending to come from abstract principles that are necessarily right and people who see it as tending to come merely from the changing preferences of those in position to impose their will--preferences that are only preferences in a world in which nothing is necessarily right.
From this excerpt (and Laura Kalman's Legal Realism at Yale and Robert Gordon's chapter in History of Yale Law School), I imagine that the volumes represent Ecklund's lifelong dialogue with his law professors, as well as a lifetime's accumulation of learning about the law.

Update: Dr. Ecklund describes her husband's writing and her editing of the book here.

The TOC appears after the jump.


Volume I

List of Illustrations    
Editor’s Foreword     
Preface                                   

Part 1
Preliminary Reflections                      
Introduction            
China                                               
Israel                                               
Law as Principle, Law as Preference             
                                   
Part 2
The Democratic Justice of Greece                 
Athens                        
Athenian Democracy             
The Sophists and the Teaching of Advocacy: Isocrates                    
The Philosophers and the High Road in the Study of Law               
Socrates                      
            Plato               
            Aristotle                     
            The Hellenistic Period            
            Theophrastus              
            Epicureans, Stoics, and Skeptics                   
                                   
Part 3
The Aristocratic Justice of Rome                   
            Rome                                      
            Introduction               
            Legal Science             
            The Constitution of the Later Republic                     
            Roman Education                  
            Rhetoric and the Teaching of Advocacy                   
            The Jurisconsults and the Writing and Teaching of Law                  
            The Principate            
            Rhetoric in the Principate: Teaching Advocacy as a  State Responsibility               
Quintilian and the Apex of Imperial Rhetoric                       
            The Jurisconsults in the Principate                 
                        The Law Schools in Rome                             
                        The Academic Lawyer: Gaius                       
                        Papinian and Ulpian               
            The Dominate            
                        The Constitution and Style of the Dominate             
                        The End of the Jurisconsults              
                        Rhetoric in the Dominate                   
                        The Law School at Berytus               
            Justinian, the Digest, and the Institutes                     
            Rome and the Philosophy of Law                 
                        Introduction               
                        Ius Gentium               
                        Gaius and Ulpian                   
                        Cicero and the Stoics                         
                        Aristotle Redux                     
            The Legacy                
                                   
Part 4
The Fall of the Roman Juridical System and the Rise of the Roman Catholic Christian Church                  The Periods of Medieval History               
            The End of Roman Government                   
The Early Roman Catholic Church as an Organization for the Unification of Western Europe Under Law                       
            The “Constitution” of the Early Church        
                        Jesus               
                        Constantine    
                        The Donation of Constantine
                        The Philosophy of the Church           
            The Church, the Law, and Medieval Intellect           
                        The Church and Education; Tertullian and Jerome               
                        The Organization and Operation of the Church and Its Secular Role                       
                                                           
Part 5
The Scandinavian Impact of Romanized Gaul and England            
The Southerly and Westerly Movement of the Nordic Peoples;
            Their Kingdoms                     
            The Celts                    
                        The Cimbri; Origin of the Appellation “Gemanii”                 
            The Iron Ages            
                        The Early Migrations from Scandinavia                    
                        Bishop Hincmar: Theocracy and the Pseudo-Isidore            
                        Carolingian Heritage and the German Expansion                 
            The Ottonian Revival             

                       
Part 6
Local Custom
Regulator of Society in Succession to Roman Law              
            The Development of Customary Local Law             
                        Ancient Agriculture               
            The Manorial System             
                        Feudalism                   
                                                           
Part 7
Advocacy’s Revival of Learning
The University and the Church          
Roman Catholicism as Rome’s Trustee: The Carolingian Renaissance                     
                        Introduction               
            The Revival of Europe                       
                        Economic Conditions            
                        Population                  
                        Towns            
                        Money            
                        Mathematics               
            The Church                
                        The Legal Renaissance at Bologna and the Birth 
                        of the University                    
                                               
Part 8
Rapid Expansion of the Academic Context              
            The Progress of Scholasticism and Canon Law                     
                        Abelard                      
                        Gratian and the Canon Law              
                        Law Students at the University of Bologna              
            The Professors of Bologna                 
            The University of Paris                      
                        The Other Medieval Universities: Ecclesiastical Careers for Lawyers          
                        Innocent III               
            The Mendicant Orders                       

Part 9
The New Aristotle Meets the New Law of Thomas Aquinas           
            The Second Challenge from the Ancient World: The New Aristotle            
            The Response to the Second Challenge from the Ancient World:
                        Thomas Aquinas                    
                       
Part 10
Against the Pope
Kings, Lawyers, Individualism                      
            Royal National Government  
                        The Rise of France and the Decline of the Church   
                        The New Philosophy and the End of the Middle Ages        
            Introduction: The Special Case of England   
                        The Commentators                 
                        Bartolus                      
            The Practicing Lawyers and Their Literature            
            The Rise of the French Crown: Effects of the Papacy and the
            Universities in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries                     
            Introduction               
            Growing Power of the Capetian Kings 987–1285                
            Philip the Fair and His Lawyers                    
            Advocacy and Its Struggle with the Papacy             
            The Concerns of the Lesser Royal Lawyers              
            The Destruction of the Temporal Power of the Papacy                     
            The Rise of Secular Control of the Universities                    
            The End of the Middle Ages; William of Ockham (1278–1347)                  


Volume II
                                   
Part 11
Humanistic Study of Roman Law in a Time of Scientific Expansion Petrarch, His Successors, Montaigne           
            Western Europe in the Modern Age to the Code Napoleon             
            Humanism                  
            Petrarch                      
            After Petrarch            
            Montaigne and the Revival of Skepticism                 

Part 12
Reformation and Counter Reformation
Individual Conscience and the Response of Church and Crown      
            Reformation               
            Introduction               
            The Condition of the Church             
            Reformation; Erasmus                       
            Luther            
            Calvin             
            The Catholic Reformation                 
            Effects of the Reformation on Canon Law and the Universities                  
                       
Part 13
The New Hinge Period
Geographical Expansion, Capitalism, Scientific Revolution 
            Rise of the Merchants and Middle Class; The New World; Capitalism                    
            The Seventeenth Century and the Scientific Revolution                  
                        Introduction               
                        Copernicus                 
                        Stevinus                     
                        Galileo; Kepler                       
                        Newton                      
           
Part 14
The Seventeenth Century’s Encounter with Natural Law
Grotius, Descartes, Hobbes, Pufendorf         
            The Mood of the Seventeenth Century                     
            Secular Natural Law
                        The First Period                     
            Grotius                       
            Descartes                    
            Hobbes                       
            Pufendorf                   
                                                           
Part 15
The Expansion of Secular Natural Law in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Louis XIV and Pascal
            The Progress of Secular Natural Law            
            Overview                   
            Louis XIV: Legislator and Legal Educator               
            Life of Domat
                       
Part 16
The Second Period of Secular Natural Law
D’Aguesseau and Pothier      
            The Progress of Secular Natural Law            
            Henri-François D’Aguesseau             
            Pothier            
                                               
Part 17
Montesquieu
The Sociological Case for Governance by Secular Natural Law                   
            Montesquieu              
            Introduction               
            Early Life                   
            Les lettres persanes                
            Travels, 1721–1731                
            The History of the Romans                
            De l’Esprit des lois                 
            Death of Montesquieu
                                                           
Part 18
Beliefs and Institutions in Enlightenment, Revolution, and Empire             
            The Enlightenment                 
            Introduction               
            The Philosophes                     
            The Physiocrats                      
            The Avocats               
            The Universities                     
            Revolution                 
                       
Part 19
The Nineteenth Century Intersection of Re-emergence
Antiquity, Empire, and Advocacy                 
            Portalis and the Code Napoleon                    
            Introduction               
            Young Portalis                       
            Portalis at the Bar                  
            Portalis in the Revolution and Its Aftermath            
            The Philosophy of Portalis                 
            The Concordat of 1801 Between France and the Pope                                             
            Portalis and the Code Napoleon                    
                                                           
Bibliography  
Index              

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