Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 eliminated much blatant discrimination, but after its enactment and before Griggs, businesses held the view that a commitment to equality required only eliminating policies and practices that were intentionally discriminatory—the “disparate treatment” test.
In Griggs v. Duke Power Co., the Supreme Court ruled that a “disparate impact” test could also apply—that the 1964 Civil Rights Act extended to practices with a discriminatory effect. In tracing the impact of the Griggs ruling on employment practices, this book documents the birth, maturation, death, and rebirth of the disparate impact theory, including its erosion by later Supreme Court decisions and its restoration by congressional action in the Civil Rights Act of 1991.
Other authorities on the Griggs case praise the book. From Michael Meltsner:Belton conducts us through this historic case from the original lawsuit to the Supreme Court decision in Griggs and beyond as he traces the post-Griggs developments in the lower courts, the Supreme Court, and Congress; he provides informed insights into both litigators’ and judges’ perspectives and decision-making. His work situates the case in its legal, social, and historical contexts and explores the relationship between public and private enforcement of the law, with a focus on the Legal Defense Fund’s litigation campaign against employment discrimination. A detailed examination of the development of legal principles under Title VII, this book tells the story of this seminal decision on equal employment law and offers an unprecedented close-up view of personal conviction, legal strategy, and historical forces combining to effect dramatic social change.
This excellent book is not only an insider's story of the most important employment discrimination case ever decided by the Supreme Court but also a blow by blow account of a three decade effort to redress workplace inequality. Both tough-minded litigator and meticulous scholar, Robert Belton's excellent rendering of a series of epic courtroom battles is a must read for lawyers, historians and policy makers.
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